Eyes large, with more than 10 facets; scape extends well beyond margin of vertex; second segment of funiculus longer than its maximum width; dorsal face of propodeum in profile distinctly below level of promesonotum; color dark brown to black; legs, funiculus & mandibles red-brown. This species is distinct from all other species.
Kempf (1962) gives the following diagnosis for H. foreli:
"Body rather slender. Scape surpassing the occipital border by a distance equalling twice ist maximum diameter when laid back over the head as much as possible. Funicular segment II elongate. Eyes medium-sized, with about 5 facets across the maximum diameter. Thorax hump-backed, promesonotum convex in both directions. Mesonotum subcircular. Epinotum strongly compressed transversely, gable-shaped; basal face reduced to a narrow longitudinal ridge, slightly elevated behind, forming nearly an angle with the declivous face. Petiolar scale strongly compressed antero-posteriorly, in side view strongly attenuate toward apex. Gastric constriction very feeble. Pilosity and pubescence well developed. Cheeks with oblique hairs.
The color and sculpture is quite variable. Specimens from Blumenau are brown and rather feebly sculptured, as stated fort he type in the original description. Most of the remaining specimens are fuscous-brown to black, with variable but always better developed sculpture."
Identification: Eyes minute (1-3 facets); anterior border of clypeus notched in full face view; petiolar node tapering to a rounded summit; color dark brown to black, scapes dark brown to black. Similar species: JHB12, JHB02.
This species seems to be restricted to advanced secondary forest and old growth forest. I know it from Winkler (sifted litter) and Berlese (soil) samples.
Identification: Eyes minute (1 facet); in full face view scapes just attaining the posterior border of the head; propodeum tectiform, sides sloping to narrow dorsal face; petiolar node weakly tapering to a broadly rounded summit; color light brown, propodeum usually darker. Similar species: JHB12, JHB01
This is a widespread & abundant species that occurs in all successional phases.
Eyes small, with 6-7 facets; anterior border of clypeus in full face view notched; petiolar node broad, weakly tapering; sides of head without suberect hairs; color orange to dark red-brown, cuticula shining. Similar species: JHB07 & H. opacieps
Collected from sifted leaf litter; restricted to advanced secondary forest and primary forests.
Identifcation: Eyes small (3-4 fused facets); scapes short, failing to reach the posterior border of the head by less than the max. diameter of scape; petiolar node thick in lateral view, with anterior and posterior faces weakly converging, dorsal face broadly rounded; color brown, head and gaster often darker. Similar species: JHB06 & JHB11
Collected in early successional phases of forest regeneration.
Eyes minute (1 facet); scapes failing to reach the posterior border of the head by at least the max. diameter of the scape; petiolar node scale-shaped, only weakly tapering toward a broadly rounded summit; color orange to brown. Similar species: JHB05
Eyes small, with 8-10 facets; sides of head with suberect hairs; anterior border of clypeus in full face view notched; scapes with suberect hairs; anterior and posterior face of petiolar node almost parallel; color dark red-brown to black, scapes orange; cuticula subopaque. Similar species: JHB04 & H. opaciceps.
Hypoponera JHB07 resembles H. opaciceps rather closely. It differs from it by some details that were already noted by Kempf (19962):
"Scapes with a few short standing hairs, cheeks with prominent oblique hairs, head less constricted behind, dorsum of promesonotum shinier, petiolar scale narrower, slightly attenuate apicad."
These characters are constant in specimens from nest fragments collected at Cachoeira Nature reserve. Judging from my few measurments it is also larger than speimens of H. opacipes from Cachoeira reserve. Therefore I treat JHB07 as a seperate (morpho)species although it could be just a variation of H. opaciceps.
Natural History: This species prefers open and/or highly disturbed habitats.
Eyes small, with 1-4 partially fused facets; scapes relatively short, failing to reach the posterior border of the head; propodeum tectiform, sides strongly sloping to narrow dorsal face; anterior and posterior faces of petiolar node strongly converging to a rounded summit; color yellow-brown.
Eyes small, with 4-5 partially fused facets; eyes situated relatively far forward on sides of head; scapes failing to reach the posterior border of the head; petiolar node broad, anterior and posterior faces tapering to broadly rounded summit; color orange, cuticala shiny. Similar species: JHB05
Head elongated; eyes small with 3-4 partially fused facets; scapes extend beyond margin of vertex in full face view; petiolar node relatively thick, posterior and anterior faces only slightly converging, dorsum somewhat flat-topped; color orange.
I know this species only from a single specimen that was collected from sifted leaf litter in an old growth forest.
Eyes minute (1 facet); in full face view anterior border of clypeus with central protuberance; petiolar node weakly tapering to a broadly rounded summit; color dark brown to black, scapes light brown to orange. Similar species: JHB01, JHB02.
Near to H. trigona (Mayr 1887) as described by Kempf (1962).
I found this species in soil samples from various phases of secondary forests.
Eyes small and circular, with 8-11 facets; sides of head without suberect hairs, anterior border of clypeus in full face view notched; anterior and posterior face of petiolar node almost parallel; color dark brown to black, scapes dark brown; tegument subopaque. Similar species: JHB04 & JHB07
The species was originally described by Mayr (1887) and redescribed by Kempf (1962). Kempf gives the following diagnosis:
"Worker (lectotype). Total length 3.5 mm; head length 0.80 mm; head width 0.69 (0.67) mm; scape length 0.67 (0.64) mm; thorax length 1.09 mm; pronotum width 0.48 mm; petiole length 0.24 mm; petiole width 0.37 (0.35) mm; postpetiole (tergite I of gaster!) length 0.48 mm; postpetiole width 0.59 (0.56) mm; hind femur length 0.67 mm.
Mandibles with 3 distinct apical teeth, followed basad by numerous (over 8) small to indistinct denticles. Anterior face of clypeus vertical, subtruncate, truncation above obtusely marginate. Outer borders of frontal lobes conspicuously ciliate. Eyes with approximately 12 facets. Scape in repose attains the occipital border. Funicular segments I and XI distinctly longer than broad, III-VI conspicuously transverse, II, VII-X almost as long as broad. Dorsum of thorax continuous, promesonotal and mesoepinotal sutures distinct but not deeply impressed. Anterobasal tooth of petiole rudimentary; spiracular opening minute. Cheeks, scapes and legs lacking standing or long oblique hairs.
The paratype worker agrees perfectly with the lectotype. The slight divergence in a few measurements have been given above in parenthesis."
The description fits well to the collected specimens. H. opaciceps has a vast distribution area from Southern USA to Argentina. More than one species might be grouped under H. opaciceps and many varieties have been described. H. JHB07 resembles H. opaciceps rather closely; see notes under H. JHB07.
I have collected this species exclusively in pastures.
Kempf (1962): From Southern USA to Central Argentina. In Brazil: Sao Paulo, Paraná (my collections), Santa Catarina, Rio Grande do Sul.
Definintion of Measurements
Head length (HL): maximum longitudinal length from the anteriormost portion of the clypeus to the midpoint of a line drawn across the posterior margin of the head from its highest points. Head width (HW): maximum head width, excluding eyes. Scape length (SL): scape length, not including basal constriction and condyle. Oculomandibular distance (OMD): The distance between the lower margin of the eye and the anterior border of the head capsule (not the anterolateral border of the clypeus!) in side view. See Longino´s page on Hypoponera for a more detailed description of the ocularmandibular distance with figures.
Offline References for Hypoponera
Mayr, G. (1887): Südamerikanische Formiciden. Verhandlungen der k. k. zoologisch-botanischen Gesellschaft in Wien. Vol. 37. [Original description of H. foreli and H. opaciceps]
Kempf, W.W. (1962): Miscellaneous Studies on Neotropical Ants (Hym. Formicidae). Studia Entomologica 5(4): 1-38.
Online References for Hypoponera
History of Changes
(25.02.2007) changed H. JHB03 to H. foreli and JHB13 to H. opaciceps. Thanks to Alex Wild for pointing that out.